Human Anatomy and Physiology Book PDF

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Human Anatomy and Physiology Book PDF Download Free

human anatomy and physiology book

What are Anatomy and Physiology?

Anatomy: the word anatomy is derived from the Greek word “Anatome” meaning to cut up. It is the study of structures that make up the body and how those structures relate to each other.

The study of anatomy includes many sub-specialties. These are Gross anatomy, Microscopic anatomy, Developmental anatomy, and Embryology.

Gross anatomy studies body structure without a microscope. Systemic anatomy studies the functional relationships of organs within a system whereas Regional anatomy studies body parts regionally. Both systemic and regional approaches may be used to study gross anatomy.

Microscopic anatomy (Histology) requires the use of a microscope to study tissues that form the various organs of the body.

Physiology: the word physiology is derived from a Greek word for the study of nature. It is the study of how the body and its part work or function.

Hence, Anatomy and physiology are studied together to give students a full appreciation and understanding of the human body.


When structure and function are coordinated the body achieves relative stability in its internal environment called homeostasis / staying the same. Although the external environmental changes constantly, the internal environment of a healthy body remains the same within normal limits.

Under normal conditions, homeostasis is maintained by adaptive mechanisms ranging from a control center in the brain to chemical substances called hormones that are secreted by various organs directly into the blood streams. Some of the functions controlled by homeostasis mechanisms are blood pressure, body temperature, breathing, and heart rate.

Level of structural organization of the body

The human body has different structural levels of organization, starting with atoms molecules, and compounds and increasing in size and complexity to cells, tissues, organs, and the systems that make up the complete organism.

Atoms molecules and compounds: – At its simplest level, the body is composed of atoms. The most common elements in a living organism are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen phosphorus, and sulfur.

Cell: The smallest independent unit of life. All life depends on the many chemical activities of cells. Some of the basic functions of cell are: growth, metabolism, irritability, and reproduction.

Tissue: tissue is made up of many similar cells that perform a specific function. The various tissues of the body are divided into four groups. These are epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle tissue.

Epithelial tissue: – Found in the outer layer of skin, the lining of organs, blood and lymph vessels, and body cavities.

Connective tissue: – Connects and supports most parts of the body. They constitute most parts of skin, bone, and tendons.

Muscle tissue: – Produces movement through its ability to contract. This constitutes skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.

Nerve tissue: – Found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It responds to various types of stimuli and transmits nerve impulses.

Organ: – Is an integrated collection of two or more kinds of tissue that works together to perform a specific function. For example, the Stomach is made of all types of tissues

System: Is a group of organs that work together to perform a major function. For example, the Respiratory system contains several organs.

Organism level: – The various organs of the body form the entire organism.

 Anatomical Terminologies

The language of anatomy will probably be unfamiliar to you at first. But once you have understood the basic word roots, combining word forms, prefixes, and suffixes you will find that anatomical terminologies are not as difficult as you first imagined.

Anatomical Position.

Anatomical positions are universally accepted as the starting points for positional references to the body. In anatomical position the subject is standing erect and facing the observer, the feet are together, and the arms are hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward.

No. of Pages428
PDF Size11.3 MB

Human Anatomy and Physiology Book PDF Download Free

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